James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was a political theorist, American statesman and the fourth President of the United States (1809-17). Hailed as the “Father of the Constitution,” Madison wrote the first drafts of the U.S. Constitution, co-wrote The Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, and sponsored the Bill of Rights. He established the Democratic-Republican Party with President Thomas Jefferson, and served as Jefferson’s Secretary of State (1801-09). As Secretary of State, Madison supervised the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the nation’s size. As President, he led the United States into the War of 1812; this endeavor was an administrative morass, as the U.S. had neither a strong army nor financial system. As a result, Madison afterward supported a stronger national government and a strong military, as well as the national bank.
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