Grace Hopper was an American computer scientist and United States Navy Rear Admiral. She was one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer in 1944. In the 1950s, Hopper invented the first compiler for a computer programming language and helped popularize the idea of machine-independent programming languages—which led to the development of COBOL, one of the first high-level programming languages. She is credited with popularizing the term “debugging” for fixing computer glitches (in one instance, removing a moth from a computer). Owing to her accomplishments and her naval rank, Hopper is sometimes referred to as “Amazing Grace.” She was born on December 9, 1906 and died on January 1, 1992.